Code No: TMS168 Price: Rs950/- Category: Materials & Chemicals: Materials
Summary : : Plastics have become an important part of modern life and are used in different sectors of applications like packaging, building materials, consumer products and much more. Each year about 100 million tons of plastics are produced worldwide.
Demand for plastics in India reached about 4.3 million tons in the year 2001-02 and would increase to about 8 million tons in the year 2006-07. Currently, however, the per capita consumption of plastics in India is only about 3 kg compared to 30-40 kg in the developed countries. The present market in India is of about Rs. 25,000 crore.
Hazards of Plastics: Most of today\'s plastics and synthetic polymers are produced from petrochemicals. As conventional plastics are persistent in the environment, improperly disposed plastic materials are a significant source of environmental pollution, potentially harming life. The plastic sheets or bags do not allow water and air to go into earth which causes reduction in fertility status of soil, preventing degradation of other normal substances, depletion of underground water source and danger to animal life. In the seas too, plastic rubbish - from ropes and nets to the plastic bands from beer packs -choke and entangle the marine mammals.
Bio plastics are biodegradable plastics, whose components are derived from renewable raw materials. These plastics can be made from abundant agricultural/animal resources like cellulose, starch, collagen, casein, soy protein polyesters are triglycerides. Large-scale use of these would help in preserving non-renewable resources like petroleum, natural gas and coal and contribute to the problems of waste management. Biodegradable plastics degrade over a period of time if exposed to sun and air.
Though the demand for biodegradable plastics is increasing, acceptance of biodegradable polymers is likely to depend on factors like
Immediate application areas identified in India for biodegradable plastics are Agricultural Mulch, Surgical Implants, Industrial Packaging, Wrapping, Milk Sachets, Foodservice, Personal Care, Pharmaceuticals, Medical Devices, Recreational, etc.
TIFAC report on biodegradable plastics highlights the Indian efforts in this direction, as well as activities at some of the major centres of development in USA/Canada, Germany, Scandinavian countries and Japan. This report also gives brief details of biodegradable plastic technology developed by University of Nebraska, Chronopol, Inc., EPI Environmental Products, Inc., Isolyser Company, Inc., Solpax Limited, Novamont, Federal Cartidge Company and a few other companies. In addition, the reader would find lists of worldwide manufacturers of polymers and additives, international organizations and standards for testing biodegradability.
Year of Publication : 2003
Table Of Contents : : Executive summary; Few statistical figures on production of polymers in India, world and India\'s share; Steps taken by various State Governments & Government of India in this line; Plastics & biodegradable plastics; Plastics and environment; Global & Indian scenario; Total Production and Demand Scenario of Biodegradable Plastics in India & Worldwide; Preferred options for Indian industry; Application areas for biodegradable plastics; Details on the technology development in India by various R & D centres; Industries engaged in manufacturing biodegradable plastics/additives; Problems faced by the existing Indian biodegradable plastic product manufacturers; Worldwide manufacturers of polymers/additives; problems faced by the existing Indian biodegradable plastic product manufacturers; Worldwide manufacturers of polymers/additives; International organisations & standards for testing biodegradability; Societies & organisations working in this line globally; Products specifications for the range of biodegradable plastics & material classes; Various technological routes adopted for manufacturing biodegradable plastics; Cost comparison of various polymers/additives; Patents; Indian Market; Survey findings; Feed back of different sectors; Technology providers and suggested options for India; List of associated institutions/agencies which can be engaged for further developmental work; Useful information - News articles/publications giving information on plastics & biodegradable plastics, technologies, Norms & impositions in India - Extracts from Hindu, Tuesday, august 21, 2001 \'management of plastic waste\' - comparison of physical properties - Tensile strength test on a typical degradable polyethylene and polypropylene of M/s. Willo ridge plastics, inc Enlanger, KY USA.- rate of biodegradable of various materials; Specifications of "re-source-Bag TM", a totally biodegradable product, available from biocorp, USA; Annexures
Materials that undergo significant structural modifications (mainly reduction of molecular weights) when placed in suitable environments (ASTM D - 883) are called Environmentally degradable polymers.